Liminal animals, also known as commensal animals, are wild and domestic species who live on anthropogenic food sources and share their living spaces with humans (O’Connor, 2013). According to this definition, pigeons, rats, and other usually wild animals can be liminal. Dogs, cats, and other usually domestic animals can also be liminal if, for example, they are stray or feral. As with wild and domestic animals, liminal animals are characterized by their living situation, not their species identity.
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