Since the first anatomically modern humans evolved from their premodern ancestors circa 200,000 years ago, humans have had a close, complex relationship with other animals. One can categorize this relationship by the six ways humans have seen animals: as philosophical and ethical subjects; as reflexive thinkers; as domesticates, “pets,” and food; as spectacle and sport; as symbols; and as scientific objects (Kalof & Fitzgerald, 2007, pp. xiv-xv). Of course, many aspects of the relationship can fall into multiple categories, and some aspects may not fall into any category.
To view the teaching modules related to the animal-human relationship, use the links in the left sidebar.